SIGNAL Bibliography

Home | Company | Products | Sales | Support | What's New | SIGNAL in Science | Contact | Search


Following is a bibliography of selected papers using SIGNAL for the bioacoustical analysis of behavior, neuroscience and behavioral ecology and for general engineering and signal analysis. These papers illustrate the range of SIGNAL applications and provide a reference source of SIGNAL methods for researchers.

SIGNAL users are invited to send bibliographies and PDF papers via email to Engineering Design for inclusion in this list.


Bohn, K.M., Boughman, J.W., Wilkinson, G.S., Moss, C.F. 2004. Auditory sensitivity and frequency selectivity in greater spear-nosed bats suggest specializations for acoustic communication. J. Comp. Physiology A: Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology 190: 185-192.

Bohn, K.M., Wilkinson, G.S. and Moss, C.F. 2007. Discrimination of infant isolation calls by female greater spear-nosed bats, Phyllostomus hastatus. Anim Behav 73:423-432.

Bohn, K.M., Schmidt-French, B., Schwartz, C., Smotherman, M., Pollak, G.D. 2009. Versatility and Stereotypy of Free-Tailed Bat Songs. PLoS ONE, Vol 4, Iss 8, Aug 2009.

Bohn, K.M., Smarsh, G.C., Smotherman, M. 2013. Social context evokes rapid changes in bat song syntax. Anim Behav 85 (6), 1485-1491.

Boughman, J.W. and Wilkinson, G.S. 1998. Greater spear-nosed bats discriminate group mates by vocalizations. Anim. Behav. 55:1717-1732.

Esser, K.-H. and Kiefer, R. 1996. Detection of frequency modulation in the FM-bat, Phyllostomus discolor. J Comp Physiol A (1996) 178:787 796.

Esser, K.-H., Condon, C.J., Suga, N., Kanwal, J.S. 1997. Syntax processing by auditory cortical neurons in the FM-FM area of the mustached bat Pteronotus parnellii. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., Vol. 94, pp. 14019–14024, December 1997.

Esser, K.-H. and Schubert, J. 1998. Vocal dialects in the Lesser Spear-Nosed Bat, Phyllostomuis discolor. Naturwissenschaften 85, 347–349 (1998).

Esser, K.-H. 2003. Modeling aspects of speech processing in bats: behavioral and neurophysiological studies. Speech Communication 41 (2003) 179–188.

Kanwal J.S., Fitzpatrick, D.C., Suga N. 1999. Facilitatory and inhibitory frequency tuning of combination-sensitive neurons in the primary auditory cortex of mustached bats. J. Neurophysiol. 82:2327–2345.

Smotherman, M. and Metzner, W. 2003. Effects of Echo Intensity on Doppler-Shift Compensation Behavior in Horseshoe Bats. J. Neurophysiol. 89: 814-821, 2003.

Smotherman, M. and Metzner, W. 2005. Auditory-Feedback Control of Temporal Call Patterns in Echolocating Horseshoe Bats. J. Neurophysiol. 1295-1303, 2005.



Allan, S.E., and Suthers, R.A. 1994. Lateralization and motor stereotype of song production in the brown-headed cowbird. J Neurobiology, Vol. 25, No. 9, pp. 1154-1 166 (1994).

Anderson, R.C., Searcy, W.A., Peters, S., Nowicki, S. 2008. Soft Song in Song Sparrows Acoustic Structure and Implications for Signal Function. Ethology 114 (2008) 662–676.

Balaban, E. 1997. Changes in multiple brain regions underlie species differences in a complex, congenital behavior. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., Vol 94, 2001-2006, March 1997.

Balaban, E., Desco, M., Vaquero, J-J. 2012. Waking-like Brain Function in Embryos. Current Biology 22, 852-861, May 22, 2012.

Branch, C.L. and Pravosudov, V.V. 2015. Mountain chickadees from different elevations sing different songs: acoustic adaptation, temporal drift or signal of local adaptation?. R. Soc. open sci. 2: 150019.

Goller, F., Larsen, O.N. 1997. A new mechanism of sound generation in songbirds. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., Vol. 94, pp. 14787–14791, December 1997.

Hoese, W.J., Podos, J., Boetticher, N.C., Nowicki, S. 2000. Vocal Tract Function in Birdsong Production: Experimental Manipulation of Beak Movements. J. Experimental Biology 203, 1845–1855 (2000).

Lein, R.M. 2007. Patterns of dawn singing by Buff-breasted Flycatchers. J. Field Ornithol. 78(4):343–351, 2007.

Lein, R.M. 2008. Song Variation in Buff-breasted flycatchers. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120(2):256–267, 2008.

Lohr, B., Wright, T.F., Dooling, R.J. 2003. Detection and discrimination of natural calls in masking noise by birds: estimating the active space of a signal. Animal Behaviour, 2003, 65, 763–777.

Lohr, B. 2008. Pitch-related cues in the songs of sympatric mountain and black-capped chickadees. Behavioural Processes 77 (2008) 156–165.

Lovell, S.F. and Lein, M.R. 2004. Song variation in a population of Alder Flycatchers. J Field Ornithology 75: 146-151.

Lovell, S.F. and Lein, M.R. 2004. Neighbor-stranger discrimination by song in a suboscine bird, the Alder Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum. Behavioral Ecology 15:799-804.

Lovell, S.F. and Lein, M.R. 2005. Individual recognition of neighbors by song in a suboscine bird, the Alder Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 57: 623-630.

Nelson, D.A. and Marler, P. 1989. Categorical Perception of a Natural Stimulus Continuum: Birdsong. Science 1989 May 26;244(4907):976-8.

Nelson, D.A., Marler, P., Palleroni, A. 1995. A comparative approach to vocal learning: Intraspecific variation in the learning process. Anim. Behav., 1995, 50, 83-97.

Nelson, D.A., Marler, P., Palleroni, A. 1995. Ecological influences on vocal development in the white-crowned sparrow. Anim. Behav., 1999, 58, 21-36.

Nelson, D.A. and Soha, J.A. 2004. Perception of geographic variation in song in Puget Sound white-crowned sparrows. Animal Behaviour 68: 395-405.

Nelson, D.A., Hallberg, K.I., Soha, J.A. 2004. Cultural Evolution of Puget Sound White-Crowned Sparrow Song Dialects. Ethology 110, 879-908 (2004).

Nelson, D.A. and Poesel, A. 2009. Does learning produce song conformity or novelty in white-crowned sparrows?. Animal Behaviour 78 (2009) 433–440.

Nelson, D.A. and Poesel, A. 2011. Song length variation serves multiple functions in the white-crowned sparrow. Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2011) 65:1103–1111.

Nowicki, S., Mitani, J.C., Nelson, D.A., Marler, P. 1989. The communicative significance of tonality in birdsong: responses to songs produced in helium. Bioacoustics, 2:1, 35-46.

Nowicki, S., Marler, P., Maynard, A., Peters, S. 1992. Is the Tonal Quality of Birdsong Learned? Evidence from Song Sparrows. Ethology 90, 225-235 (1992).

Nowicki, S., Searcy, W.A., Hughes, M., Podos, J. 2001. The evolution of bird song: male and female response to song innovation in swamp sparrows. Animal Behaviour, 2001, 62, 1189–1195.

Podos, J., Sherer, J., Peters, S., Nowicki, S. 1995. Ontogeny of vocal tract movements during song production in song sparrows. Anim. Behav., 1995, 50, 1287-1296.

Proppe, D.S., Sturdy C.S., St. Clair C.C. 2011. Flexibility in Animal Signals Facilitates Adaptation to Rapidly Changing Environments. PLoS ONE, 6(9), Sep 2011.

Proppe D.S., Sturdy C.S. & St. Clair C.C. 2013. Anthropogenic noise decreases urban songbird diversity and may contribute to homogenization. Global Change Bio (2013) 19(4):1075-1084.

Searcy, W.A., Anderson, R.C., Nowicki, S. 2006. Bird song as a signal of aggressive intent. Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2006) 60: 234–241.

Soha, J.A., Lohr, B., Gill, D.E. 2009. Song development in the grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum. Animal Behaviour 77 (2009) 1479–1489.

Suthers, R.A., Goller, F., Hartley, R.S. 1994. Motor dynamics of song production by mimic thrushes. J Neurobiology, Vol. 25, No. 8, pp. 917-936 (1994).

Suthers, R.A., Goller, F., Hartley, R.S. 1996. Motor stereotypy and diversity in songs of mimic thrushes. J Neurobiology, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 231-245 (1996)

Suthers, R.A., Goller, F., Wild, J.M. 2002. Somatosensory feedback modulates the respiratory motor program of crystallized birdsong. PNAS, April 16, 2002, vol. 99, no. 8, 5680–5685.

Sturge, R.J., Omland, K.E., Price, J.J., Lohr, B. 2016. Divergence in calls but not songs in the orchard oriole complex. J Avian Biology 47: 109–120, 2016.

Wanker, R., Sugama, Y., Prinage, S. 2005. Vocal labelling of family members in spectacled parrotlets, Forpus conspicillatus. Animal Behaviour, 2005, 70, 111–118.



Leong, K.M., Ortolani, A., Burks, K.D., Mellen, J.D., Savage, A. 2003. Quantifying acoustic and temporal characteristics of vocalizations for a group of captive african elephants Loxodonta africana. Bioacoustics, 13:3, 213-231.

Poole, J.H. 1999. Signals and assessment in African elephants: evidence from playback experiments. Animal Behaviour, 1999, 58, 185–193.

Poole, J.H. 2005. Elephants are capable of vocal learning. Nature, Vol 434, 24 March 2005.



Anderson, K.A., Rountree, R.A., Juanes, F. 2008. Soniferous Fishes in the Hudson River. Trans. American Fisheries Society 137:616–626, 2008.

Kaatz, I.M., Lobel, P.S. 2001. A comparison of sounds recorded from a catfish (Orinocodoras eigenmanni, Doradidae) in an aquarium and in the field. Biological Bulletin 201: 278-280.

Kaatz, I.M., Stewart, D.J., Rice, A.N., Lobel, P.S. 2010. Differences in pectoral fin spine morphology between vocal and silent clades of catfishes (Order Siluriformes): ecomorphological implications. Current Zoology 56(No.1): 73-89.

Lobel, P.S., Mann. D.A. 1995. Spawning sounds of the damselfish, Dascyllus albisella (Pomacentridae), and relationship to male size. Bioacoustics 6:3, 187-198.

Lobel, P.S. 1998. Possible species specific courtship sounds by two sympatric cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi, Africa. Envir. Biology of Fishes, Aug 1998.

Lobel, P.S. 2002. Diversity of fish spawning sounds and the application of passive acoustic monitoring. Bioacoustics 12:2-3, 286-289.

Mann, D.A., Lobel, P.S. 1995. Passive acoustic detection of sounds produced by the damselfish, Dascyllus albisella (Pomacentridae). Bioacoustics 6:3, 199-213.

Rountree, R.A., Juanes, F. 2010. First attempt to use a remotely operated vehicle to observe soniferous fish behavior in the Gulf of Maine, Western Atlantic Ocean. Current Zoology 56 (1):90-99, 2010.



Baugh, A., Akre, K.L., Ryan, M.R. 2008. Categorical perception of a natural, multivariate signal – Mating call recognition in tϊngara frogs. PNAS, July 1, 2008, vol. 105, no. 26, 8985–8988.

Baugh, A. and Ryan, M.R. 2010. Temporal updating during phonotaxis in male tϊngara frogs. Amphibia-Reptilia 31 (2010):449-454.

Boul, K.E. and Ryan, M.R. 2004. Population variation of complex advertisement calls in Physalaemus petersi. Copeia, 2004(3), pp. 624–631.

Boul, K.E., Funk, W.C., Darst, C.R., Cannatella, D.C., Ryan, M.R. 2007. Sexual selection drives speciation in an Amazonian frog. Proc. R. Soc. B (2007) 274, 399–406.

Rosenthal, G.G., Rand, A.S., Ryan, M.R., 2004. The vocal sac as visual cue in anuran communication: an experimental analysis using video playback. Evolution, 57(11), 2003, pp. 2608–2618.

Ryan, M.R. and Rand, A.S., 2003. Sexual selection in female perceptual space - How female Tungara frogs perceive and respond to complex population variation in acoustic mating signals. Animal Behaviour, 2004, 68, 55–58.



Patel, A.D., Peretz, I., Tramo, M., Labrecque, R. 1998. Processing prosodic and musical patterns: A neuropsychological investigation. Brain and Language, 61: 123-144.

Patel, A.D. and Balaban, E. 2000. Temporal patterns of human cortical activity reflect tone sequence structure. Nature, 404:80-84.

Patel, A.D. and Balaban, E. 2001. Human pitch perception is reflected in the timing of stimulus-related cortical activity. Nature Neuroscience, vol. 4, no. 8, August 2001.

Patel, A.D., Iversen, J.R., Rosenberg, J.C. 2006. Comparing the rhythm and melody of speech and music: The case of British English and French. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119(5), May 2006.

Tierney, A.T., Russo, F.A., Patel, A.D. 2011. Motor origins of human and avian song structure. PNAS, September 13, 2011, vol. 108, no. 37, 15510–15515.



Henry, C.S., Brooks, S.J., Johnson, J.B., Duelli, P. 1996. Chrysoperla lucasina (Lacroix): a distinct species of green lacewing, confirmed by acoustical analysis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Systematic Entomology (1996) 21:205-218.

Henry, C.S., Wells, M.L.M., Simon, C.M. 1999. Convergent evolution of courtship songs among cryptic species of the carnea-group of green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Chrysoperla). Evolution 53: 1165-1179.

Hoikkala, A., Aspi, J., Suvanto, L. 1998. Male courtship song frequency as an indicator of male genetic quality in an insect species, Drosophila montana. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 265:503-508.

Hoikkala, A., Pδδllysaho, S., Aspi, J. & Lumme, J. 2000. Localization of genes affecting species differences in male courtship song between Drosophila virilis and D. littoralis. Genet. Res. Camb. 75: 37-45.

Jones, G., Waters, D.A. 2000. Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 2000 267, 1627-1632.

Ritchie, M.G., Couzin, I.D., Snedden, W.A. 1995. What's in a Song? Female Bushcrickets Discriminate against the Song of Older Males. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 262:21-27.

Ritchie, M.G. 1996. The shape of female mating preferences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 93: 14628-14631.

Ritchie, M.G., Townhill, R.M. & Hoikkala, A. 1998. Female preference for fly song: playback experiments confirm the targets of sexual selection. Anim. Behav. 56: 713-717.

Ritchie, M.G., Halsey, E.J., Gleason, J.M. 1999. Drosophila song as a species-specific mating signal, and the behavioural importance of Kyriacou & Hall cycles in D. melanogaster song. Anim. Behav. 58: 649-657.

Ritchie, M.G., Couzin, I.D., Snedden, W.A. 1995. The inheritance of female preference functions in a mate recognition system. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 262:327-332.

Saarikettu, M., Liimatainen, J.O. & Hoikkala, A. 2005. The role of male courtship song in species recognition in Drosophila montana. Behav. Genetics 35: 257-263.

Simmons, L.W., Ritchie, M.G. 1996. Symmetry in the Songs of Crickets. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 263: 305-311.


Marine mammals

Clark, C.W., Ellison, W.T., Beeman, K. 1986. Acoustic tracking of migrating bowhead whales. Oceans 86, IEEE Oceanic Eng. Soc., New York: 341- 346.

Clark, C.W., Marler, P., Beeman, K. 1987. Quantitative Analysis of Animal Vocal Phonology: an Application to Swamp Sparrow Song. Ethology, 76, 101-115 (1987)

Ellison, W.T., Clark, C.W., Beeman, K. 1986. Acoustic location techniques and calibration methods used during the spring 1984 and 1985 bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus, migrations. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. 36:502.

Janik, V.M. 1999. Pitfalls in categorization: a comparison of dolphin whistle classification methods. Animal Behaviour, 1999, 57, 133–143.

Janik, V.M., Van Parijs S.M., Thompson P.M. 2000. A two-dimensional acoustic localization system for marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science, 16(2):437-447 (April 2000).

Janik, V.M. 2000. Food-related bray calls in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (2000) 267, 923-927.

Janik, V.M. 2000. Whistle Matching in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Science Vol 289 25 August 2000, 1355-1357.

Janik, V.M., Sayigh, L.S., Wells, R.S. 2006. Signature whistle shape conveys identity information to bottlenose dolphins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., Vol 103, no. 21, 8293-8297, May 23, 2006.

Phillips, A.V. and Stirling, I. 2000. Vocal individuality in mother and pup South American fur seals Arctocephalus australis. Marine Mam Sci, 16(3):592-616 (July 2000).

Smolker, R. and Pepper, J.W. 1999. Whistle Convergence among Allied Male Bottlenose Dolphins (Delphinidae, Tursiops sp.). Ethology 105, 595-617 (1999).


Monkeys & apes

Cheung, S.W. 2005. Plasticity in Primary Auditory Cortex of Monkeys with Altered Vocal Production. J. Neuroscience, March 9, 2005, 25(10):2490–2503.

Ghazanfar, A.A., Smith-Rohrberg, D., Hauser, M.D. 2001. The Role of Temporal Cues in Rhesus Monkey Vocal Recognition: Orienting Asymmetries to Reversed Calls. Brain Behav Evol 2001; 58:163-172.

Hauser, M.D. and Fowler, C.A. 1992. Fundamental frequency declination is not unique to human speech: Evidence from nonhuman primates. J Acoust Soc Am, 91(1), Jan 1992, 363-369.

Hauser, M.D. and Marler, P. 1993. The role of articulation in the production of rhesus monkey vocalizations. Behavioral Animal Behavior, 1993, 45, 423-433.

Hauser, M.D. and Marler, P. 1993. Food-associated calls in rhesus macaques: I. Socioecological factors. Behavioral Ecology, Vol. 4, No. 3., 194-205.

Hauser, M.D. and Marler, P. 1993. Food-associated calls in rhesus macaques: II. Costs and benefits of call production and suppression. Behavioral Ecology, Vol. 4, No. 3., 206-212.

Hauser, M.D. 1998. Functional referents and acoustic similarity: field playback experiments with rhesus monkeys. Anim Behav, 1998, 55, 1647-1658.

Hauser, M.D., Agnetta, B., Perez, C. 1998. Orienting asymmetries in rhesus monkeys – the effect of time-domain changes on acoustic perception. Anim Behav, 1998, 56, 41–47.

Le Prell, C.G., Hauser, M.D., Moody, D.B. 2002. Discrete or graded variation within rhesus monkey screams? Psychophysical experiments on classification. Anim Behav 2002, 63, 47-62.

Rauschecker, J.P., Tian, B., Hauser M. 1995. Processing of Complex Sounds in the Macaque Nonprimary Auditory Cortex. Science 268:111-114.

Wilson, M.L., Hauser, M.D., Wrangham, R.W. 2001. Does participation in intergroup conflict depend on numerical assessment, range location, or rank for wild chimpanzees?. Anim Behav, 2001 61, 1203-1216.


Other mammals

Clapham, W.M., Fedders, J.M., Beeman, K., Neel, J.P.S. 2011. Acoustic monitoring system to quantify ingestive behavior of free-grazing cattle. Comput. Electron. Agric.(2011).

Gaub, S., Fisher, S.E., Ehret, G. 2016. Ultrasonic vocalizations of adult male Foxp2-mutant mice: behavioral contexts of arousal and emotion. Genes, Brain and Behavior (2016) 15: 243–259.

Schehka, S., Esser, K.-H., Zimmermann, E. 2007. Acoustical expression of arousal in conflict situations in tree shrews, Tupaia belangeri. J Comp Physiol A (2007) 193:845–852.


Engineering & signal analysis

Beeman, K. 1998. Digital Signal Analysis, Editing, and Synthesis. In Hopp, S.L., Owren, M.J., Evans, C.S. (eds), Animal Acoustic Communication: Sound Analysis and Research Methods. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998.

Cortopassi, K.A. and Bradbury, J.W. 2000. The comparison of harmonically rich sounds using spectrographic cross-correlation and principal coordinates analysis. Bioacoustics, 11:2, pp 89-127.

Khanna, H., Gaunt, S.L.L., McCallum, D.A. 1997. Digital spectrographic cross-correlation: tests of sensitivity. Bioacoustics 7:3, 209-234.

Nelson, D.A., Gaunt, S.L.L., Bronson, C.L., Burnett, S.C., Hough, G.E., Beeman, K. The digital archiving project at the Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics. JASA 106, 2190 (1999).